‘These are the rules by which they shall judge at a Community Inquiry according to the cases….
Whoever has borne malice against his companion unjustly shall do penance for six months/one year; and likewise, whoever has taken revenge in any matter whatever.
Whoever has spoken foolishly: three months.
Whoever has interrupted his companion whilst speaking: ten days.
Whoever has lain down to sleep during an Assembly of the Congregation: thirty days. And likewise, whoever has left, without reason, an Assembly of the Congregation as many as three times during one Assembly, shall do penance for ten days. But if he has departed whilst they were standing he shall do penance for thirty days.
Whoever has gone naked before his companion, without having been obliged to do so, he shall do penance for six months.
Whoever has spat in an Assembly of the Congregation shall do penance for thirty days.
Whoever has been so poorly dressed that when drawing his hand from beneath his garment his nakedness has been seen, he shall do penance for thirty days.
Whoever has guffawed foolishly shall do penance for thirty days.
Whoever has drawn out his left hand to gesticulate with it shall do penance for ten days.
Whoever has gone about slandering his companion shall be excluded from the pure Meal of the Congregation for one year and shall do penance. But whoever has slandered the Congregation shall be expelled from among them and shall return no more.’
IQS: Cave 1 / Qumran / “Serekh” = ‘rule’, 408 BCE to 318 CE
The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, G. Vermes, Penguin Books, 1962
Photographs by Ardon Bar Hama, author of original document is unknown. This is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional public domain work of art.